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Posted by on jul 1, 2011 | 1 comment

Las plantas y sus nombres botánicos

Las plantas y sus nombres botánicos

Hoy más que nunca es importante conocer los nombres botánicos de las plantas, porque tenemos acceso a muchísima información de los más diversos orígenes. Internet nos brinda la posibilidad de leer artículos producidos en los más variados puntos del planeta. Si usamos el nombre vulgar, es muy posible confundirlo. El nombre botánico, en latín, nos permite saber con más exactitud de qué especie estamos hablando. “El uso de un nombre vulgar sólo tiene cierto valor local y puede inducir a confusión, porque muchas plantas distintas tienen iguales nombres vulgares” 1

Algunos ejemplos:

Margarita amarilla, margarita de campo, hay varias especies que responden a este nombre podría ser la Aspilla silphioides o Coreopsis lanceolata L.

Salvia colorada, con este nombre se está denominando a la Salvia splendens (coral) y Salvia coccínea.

Salvia azul podría ser la S.guaranítica o S.farinácea.

Ya Linneo en 1753 fijó la nomenclatura binaria. “Esta nomenclatura emplea dos términos latinos para designar distintos organismos. El primero, que siempre se escribe con mayúsculas indica el género (por ej: Populus) y el segundo, escrito con minúsculas, designa el nombre específico (por ej: Populus alba)…”1

Estos nombres, por no escribirse en nuestra lengua habitual, se escriben con letra cursiva.

“Los nombres científicos de las especies se refieren muchas veces a las características peculiares de las plantas que designan. Así en Trifolium repens L., el nombre genérico alude a sus hojas con tres folíolos y el epíteto específico a su hábito rastrero. Otras veces, los nombres están dedicados a botánicos o personajes célebres.

Nombres genéricos:

Ludwigia: en homenaje a al botánico alemán Christian Gottlieb Ludwig (1768-1835)

Rudbeckia: en homenaje a los botánicos suecos Olaus J. Rudbeck (1630-1702) y Olaus O. Rudbeck (1660-1740) padre e hijo, predecesores de Linneo.

Zinnia: en honor al botánico alemán Johann Zinn (1727-1759)

Epítetos específicos:

-bonariensis: nativo de Buenos Aires, Verbena bonariensis;

-mollis: en latín, suave, Alchemilla mollis;

-somniferum: en latín, somnífero, Papaver somniferum;

-coccineus: escarlata, rojo brillante, Salvia coccínea;

-fulvus: bronceado, marrón claro rojizo, Hemerocallis fulva. “ 2

Conociendo el nombre científico minimizamos las confusiones, aunque nos queda por conocer las novedades de las últimas clasificaciones, las podemos encontrar a través del IPNI (International Plant Names Index) www.ipni.org


Gentiana occidentalis


Geranium renardii


Brunnera macrophylla (Myosotis del Cáucaso)

Bibliografía

1 Botánica, Morfología de las plantas superiores, de Juan J. Valla. Editorial hemisferio sur.

2 Biota Rioplatense X, Monocotiledóneas Herbáceask, Nativas y exóticas, Julio A. Hurrel-Daniel H. Bazzano-Gustavo Delucchi, Editorial L.O.L.A

 

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